Which attempts to show whether a questioned document came from the same hand as a document known to have been written by a particular person.
Signatures are compared by ruling out coincidence and simulation. We can reach on the conclusion that both the known and questioned signatures written by one or the same person.
The act of making a close or critical study of any material and with questioned document is the process necessary to discover the facts about them.
We detect documents that are altered to change the conditions of a contract or other legal entity. Alterations can take to form of erasures and replacement or insertion of material into a document.
We also determine concerning documents produced on modern office equipment. There are many types of problems that can be solved concerning documents that have been typed or printed.
Delicate stains due to chemical erasures are sometimes effectively proved by photography.
Indented writing is an imprint which may be left on the underlying pages when the top sheet of paper is written upon. This impression of the writing is very useful as a form of connecting evidence such as a robbery note, to a robbery pad recovered from a suspect.
In some cases, it is possible that the interlined or added part may be in a different handwriting ,then careful study & comparison must be made as with simulated forgery but often the part in dispute is concededly written by the writer of a remainder of the document.
The effect of the writing instrument upon writing as a means of identifying it may have an important bearing as evidence in a case of disputed writing.